Breast tissue is the place from where breast cancer originates. Breast cancer is classified on the basis of its place of origination. Cancers arising from milk ducts are classified as ductal carcinomasread more
Cervical Cancer occurs from the cells, which originates in cervix uteri. Lower portion of the uterus is known as the Cervix, and it open to the vagina. This type of cancer occur when cells that are abnormalread more
Cancerous growth in the ovary is known as ovarian cancer. There are two ovaries in women and they are located on either side of uterus. Producing eggs and hormones like testosterone, progesteroneread more
A cluster of biologically identical cancers, which begins in nasal cavity, oral cavity, the lip, pharynx, paranasal sinuses, and in the larynx are known as head and neck cancer. Majority of the head and neck cancers originate in squamous cellsread more
Lung cancer is a condition when a number of mutations cause normal lung cells to grow without any control. This abnormal growth can extend beyond the lung and can affect other body parts as wellread more
Uncontrolled growth of cells in rectum or colon (large intestine) is known as colorectal cancer. This is also called bowel cancer or colon cancer. It can also originate in the appendix. This kind of cancer usually initiates in the form of tiny polypsread more
Breast tissue is the place from where breast cancer originates. Breast cancer is classified on the basis of its place of origination. Cancers arising from milk ducts are classified as ductal carcinomas and those arising from lobules are classified as lobular carcinomas. In a few very rare cases, this type of cancer originates from other areas of breast. These are also classified as Invasive cancer or non-invasive cancer. Invasive cancers spread to other tissues from milk duct, whereas non-invasive ones are those, which have yet not affected other tissues of the breast.
Ductal cancers are generally non-invasive, but these can invade other tissues if left untreated. Lobular cancers, on the other hand, have more risk of being invasive cancer.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers, which affects women. However, there are chances that it can also affect men, but unfortunately the results in such cases are not very positive due to delay in diagnosis. The treatment and survival rate of such cancer also depends on the type of the cancer and the rate of its advancement at the same time. In a number of cases, breast cancer has been detected to be sensitive towards estrogen hormone, as it results into growth of the cancer tumor. Even after being one of the common cancers affecting women, the death rate from this type of cancer have dropped in the last few years. Thanks, to the medical advancements in this field, now these cancers can be detected at an early stage, and can be treated accordingly. In fact, after extensive research, now there is better understanding of this disease, which helps in increasing the survival rate of patients affected with breast cancer.
All kinds of breast cancers are not same, and similarly the symptoms also differ with the kind of cancer. There are almost no signs or symptoms on some cases of breast cancer, but in most of the other cases a lump in the breast is one of the first symptoms of this type of cancer. Lumps located in the lymph nodes in armpits can also be a symptom of breast cancer. Apart from a lump other symptoms include:
As it has been proved that men can also suffer from breast cancer, so some of the symptoms, which they can experience are as follows:
The point to remember here is that some of these symptoms are not always an indication of presence of malignancy. An infection or cyst in the breast can also show such symptoms. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that one should jump to any kind of conclusion when experiencing any of the above-mentioned symptoms. You should make any decision only after proper diagnosis.
Due to fact that many women are affected by breast cancer, now many opt for diagnostic tests, even if they are not experiencing any of the symptoms. Women who have attended the age of 40 are at a higher risk of developing cancer, so experts recommend self-exams, mammography, and other clinical tests for women belonging to this age group. These tests helps in early detection of breast cancer, and the early the detection, the better the treatment and its results as well. Screening tests also aids in confirming or disproving diagnosis. The key tests include:
Mammogram: This is an x-ray and if a screening mammogram reveals any abnormality, then a diagnostic mammogram is done for further evaluation.
Biopsy: Breast cell samples are sent or a laboratory test, where the nature of the cells are determined. If cancerous cells are detected, then a biopsy also helps in examining the kind of cells.
Ultrasound: A breast ultrasound can be very helpful in differentiating fluid-filled cysts from solid mass. Biopsy can be done through various methods like open, stereotactic, needle aspiration, or ultrasound guided.
MRI: This is another imaging test like ultrasound which provide internal images of the affected area and helps in diagnosing a probable mass in the breast.MRI make use of radio waves for creating these images and a dye injection is given to the patient before conducting an MRI.
Tests used for determining the stage of the cancer: Once breast cancer is detected, tests like blood test, bone scan, CT scan, and PET scan is also done to determine the cancer’s stage, as it is important to know the stage of the cancer before moving ahead with any treatment plan. In fact, mammogram of other breast is also done to detect any abnormality in it.
Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of the cancer, the stage, the grade and other factors like health of the patient, patient preferences, and whether the cells are sensitive to any hormone. There are a number of treatment options for breast cancer, so one should consult a specialist of breast cancer to find out the best treatment option.
The main treatments available for breast cancer include:
Surgery: Surgery option for breast cancer include lumpectomy, where the tumor is removed along with some adjacent healthy tissues, mastectomy, where all of the breast tissues are removed, sentinel node biopsy, where lymph nodes are removed for determining whether the cancer has spread to the lymph node or not, and axillary dissection of lymph nodes, where added lymph nodes are removed from the armpit if cancer is detected in sentinel nodes.
Chemotherapy: drugs are used for destroying cancerous cells, and it also helps in minimizing the chances of its reoccurrence and spreading to other areas. Those detected with larger tumors might also be administered with chemotherapy, so that the size of the tumor can be decreased.
Radiation Therapy: Powerful energy beams are used in radiation therapy for killing the cancer cells. This is either done through a machine or by injecting radioactive materials within the body. External radiation therapy is generally used for cancers at an early stage following lumpectomy and even after mastectomy of large cancers. There are some side effects of radiation therapy as well. These include rashes, redness of the skin, fatigue, swelling or firmness in the breast tissues, etc.
Hormone Therapy: Cancers, which are sensitive towards some hormones, are treated through hormone therapy. This therapy can be used following a surgery or any other treatment. This helps in minimizing the chances of reoccurrence of cancer as well. In fact, for cancers that have spread to other areas, this therapy can actually help in shrinking it and controlling it.
Drug Treatment: This including using different kinds of drugs for attacking particular kind of abnormalities with breast cancer cells. Some of the drugs used in the therapy include Trastuzumab, Lapatinib, Pertuzumab, Kadcyla, etc.
In case of breast cancer, changes in lifestyle can help in avoiding the risk of developing such cancer. Regular screening can also help in early detection, which can help in better treatment. One also use self exam for checking any unusual signs or lumps. Women who have crossed the age of 35 are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer, so it is recommended that they should go for routine checkup for diagnosing any risk of breast cancer. Other tips for prevention include:
Cervical Cancer occurs from the cells, which originates in cervix uteri. Lower portion of the uterus is known as the Cervix, and it open to the vagina. This type of cancer occur when cells that are abnormal becomes uncontrollable and start growing at a very fast pace. In majority of the cases of cervical cancer, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is one of the major factors causing the development of cervical cancer. Women with a good immune system are able to fight the virus, and can stop it from doing any harm. However, in some women, this virus stays for a longer period and can turn healthy cells into cancerous cells over the time. Now there are vaccines available, which help in fighting with cervical cancer, but these vaccines are effective in stopping only a few of the HPV viruses.
Majority of the cervical cancers are classified as squamous cell carcinomas, which arise in squamous or flattened epithelial cells lining the cervix area. Only a few cervical cancers arise in glandular epithelial cells. These are the next common kind of cancers after the squamous cell cancers. It is very rare that cervical cancer originates in any other cells other the two mentioned above. Many patients are affected with HPV, but it is diagnosed after a number of years. The virus stays in the body and can develop cancer after many years. Other than HPV infection, sexual practices and patterns of women enhance the risk of developing cervical cancer. Having many sexual partners and other risky sexual activities increases the risk of cervical cancer manifold.
There might not be any kind of symptoms or signs at an early stage of cervical cancer. Symptoms might crop up as the cancer progresses towards advanced stages. It is important to look for early symptoms as this helps in detecting the cancer at an early stage and also helps in proper treatment of the cancer. Key symptoms include:
At advanced stages, cervical cancer can spread to lungs, intestine, bladder, and even the liver. At such an advanced stage, one might experience one or more of the following symptoms:
Other symptoms include Pelvic pain, appetite loss, loss of weight, and single swollen leg.
For early detection of cervical cancer, a pap test is done. This helps in finding abnormal cells in the cervix. Some physicians also call for HPV DNA lab test to detect the type of HPV virus that have affected the patient and has resulted into cervical cancer. This test also comprises of collection of cells from cervix and then a lab test is done.
After the screening test cervical cancer is diagnosed through tests, which are following:
Colposcopy: This is done to find out whether cancer cells are located on the cervix surface and where they are located. In this method the doctor examines the cervix using magnification. After this, some tissues are removed surgically and are sent for lab tests.
LEEP or cone biopsy: In this inner lining of cervix is taken away for pathological examination. This is primarily done when cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is confirmed from earlier tests.
Endocervical biopsy: this is done to diagnose whether affected cells are located in cervical canal or not.
Diagnostic tests conducted for finding out the stage of the includes:
Treatment differs greatly when it comes to cervical cancer. The main reason behind this is the variances found in the cases across the globe. The treatment option for cervical cancer also varies with the stage and spread of the cancer as well as women’s age and her wish to have children. Major treatment choices include:
LEEP (Loop electrosurgical excision procedure): In this surgical procedure the abnormal tissues are removed.
Laser therapy or cryotherapy: This can also be done at an early stage for burning all abnormal tissues.
Hysterectomy: If the cervical cancer is microinvasive, then it can be treated through hysterectomy. If the cancer is on IA2 stage, then lymph nodes are also removed. This procedure can also be used for women, who have already gone through multiple LEEP procedures. The ovaries are not removed in this procedure.
Treatment for cervical cancer, which has reached an advanced stage include radical hysterectomy, where the uterus is removed along with some surrounding tissues. This includes upper portion of vagina as well as the lymph nodes. Another treatment is pelvic exenteration, which is a very extreme surgery, in which all pelvis organs are removed including the rectum and bladder.
Nowadays, people are very much aware of cervical screening also known as Pap smear test. This test has helped in minimizing the mortality rate and the incidence of cervical cancer in many developed countries. If women go for a Pap smear screening in every three to five years along with proper follow up, then this can reduce the risk of cervical cancer to almost eighty percent. With proper screening one can get preventive treatment on time. When detected early, cervical cancer can be treated noninvasively, but there can be a bit of fertility impairment in such treatment.
Other preventive measures which one can take include:
OVARIAN CANCER TREATMENT
Cancerous growth in the ovary is known as ovarian cancer. There are two ovaries in women and they are located on either side of uterus. Producing eggs and hormones like testosterone, progesterone and estrogen is the main function of the ovaries. Majority of the ovarian cancers categorized as epithelial, and it is believed that they originate from the ovary’s surface, which is called the epithelium. However, a number of evidences now hint that some of the ovarian cancers can also originate from the fallopian tube. The reason behind this is the proximity between these tubes and the ovaries, so many think that the tubes can take off ovarian cancer. This kind of cancer falls in the category of Gynecologic cancer. In most of the cases, ovarian cancer is hard to detect until it extends beyond the ovaries and spread to the abdomen and the pelvis. Treatment at such a later stage is very difficult and is a lot fatal than earlier stages. According to reports ovarian cancer stands on the fifth position among common cancers affecting women. This type of cancer is behind more deaths as compared to other categories of reproductive cancer in females. The exact cause of ovarian cancer is yet not known. However, some factors that lead to the risk of developing this cancer have been listed. These include:
Older women are also found to be at a greater risk of developing ovarian cancer as in most of the cases more number of deaths has been reported in women who have crossed the age of 55.
As far as the symptoms of ovarian cancer are concerned, most of them do not show up in the early stage of ovarian cancer. Majority of the cases of ovarian cancer reports symptoms, which continues for a longer period before actually being identified and further diagnosed. Another problem with the common symptoms of ovarian cancer is that they are not specific symptoms of this condition, as they are similar to conditions other than cancer as well. This is one of the main reasons behind the late diagnosis of ovarian cancer and till the time the cancer is diagnosed, it spreads to areas beyond the ovaries. The symptoms and signs of ovarian cancer include:
Other symptoms that are associated with ovarian cancer include tiredness and constipation, and there are several non-specific symptoms that patients can experience over time. Some of the specifics signs of ovarian cancer include unexpected weight loss and vaginal bleeding. In ovarian cancer, build-up fluids in abdominal cavity can also be present. This type of cancer is also associated with rectal bleeding, abdominal distension, anemia, appetite loss, and postmenopausal bleeding as well. Those, who have a history of breast cancer or ovarian cancer in their family, should immediately consult a doctor if they experience any of the abovementioned signs or symptoms. Physicians might ask a patient to consult a genetic counselor for discussing about tests of gene mutations, which can enhance the risk of ovarian cancer.
If diagnostic possibilities include an ovarian malignancy, then only a few lab tests are required. These include a serum electrolyte test and CBC (complete blood count). A CT scan is done for determining the stage of the cancer or the extent of its spread in the body.
Surgery, together with chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main treatment options available for ovarian cancer.
HEAD & NECK CANCER TREATMENT
A cluster of biologically identical cancers, which begins in nasal cavity, oral cavity, the lip, pharynx, paranasal sinuses, and in the larynx are known as head and neck cancer. Majority of the head and neck cancers originate in squamous cells, which contours the mucosal surfaces within the neck and head area. Head and neck cancer originating from the salivary gland is comparatively rare than other forms of this cancer. In majority of the cases these kinds of cancers extend to the neck’s lymph nodes.
Head and neck cancers are classified according to the area where they originate. The areas include the following:
Mainly, people suffering from cancers of the head and neck might experience a sore or a lump in the neck or throat. However, in case of cancer, this might not go away or heal overtime and can cause difficulty in swallowing or speaking. Some might also suffer from face muscle paralysis, but this symptom is not very common. Other symptoms include:
At times, patients do not show any of the above mentioned symptoms, or such symptoms might be the result of other medical problems. Therefore, it is important to consult your physician, if you notice any of these symptoms.
Usually, patients complain of the common symptoms of the cancers of head and neck. However, physicians normally examine the patient’s medical history, and might carry out a number of tests based on the symptoms that the patient complain of. Tests are done to diagnose the cancer and to detect whether it has metastasized, which means the extent to which it has spread. Biopsy is usually done to determine the presence of cancer and imaging tests are carried out to detect its spread. The kind of cancer, medical condition of the patient, age, result of previous tests, and severity of symptoms, are the key factors affecting the diagnosis of head and neck cancers.
Here are the main tests, which are used for diagnosing cancers of the head and neck.
Once the diagnosis is done and the extent of the tumor has been determined, the right treatment for the cancer is chosen. This choice is based on a number of variables, which include patient performance, associated health problems, nutritional status of the patient, site of the tumor, morbidity of several treatment options, preference of the patient, logistic and social factors, etc. For planning the treatment, one has to consult specialist surgeons as well as radiation and medical oncologists. If detected at an early stage, many head and neck cancers can be treated successfully. However, main goal of the treatment is not only to cure the cancer, but also to preserve the function of tissues, nerves, and organs close to the affected area. Multidisciplinary teams are often formed for evaluating the patient before the treatment actually begins. This evaluation might also include HPV infection testing, as this affects the choice of the treatment option. Treatment options for head and neck cancers are mentioned below:
LUNG CANCER TREATMENT
Lung cancer is a condition when a number of mutations cause normal lung cells to grow without any control. This abnormal growth can extend beyond the lung and can affect other body parts as well. These cancers can occur in the windpipe or the air sacs that borders the lung. This is where the oxygen exchange happens. With the growth of the tumor, ability of the lung in providing oxygen to the bloodstream decreases. Cancers, originating in the lungs are known as primary lung cancer, and those, which occur in other body parts and then make their way to the lung are called Secondary lung cancer.Categories of lung cancer
The location of the cancer, its size, and its spread are some of the main factors, which affect the symptoms of lung cancer. In early stages, there might be no symptoms. Symptoms my crop up in the later stages of the lung cancer. However, it is still important to know about the common symptoms, as rate of survival increases if the cancer is detected at an early stage.Symptoms of lung cancer are categorized as respiratory symptoms, systematic symptoms, and symptoms that arise because of local compress.
Symptoms because of local compress
Other symptoms include :
When this kind of cancer spreads some other symptoms also surfaces in the area that the cancer affects. If the cancer moves to the brain, then symptoms like seizures, headaches, vertigo, etc can crop up. Bones and joints can become painful and bones can even break. When it spreads to the adrenal glands, it can affect the hormone level in the patient. Growth of cancer in airway might block the airflow, which can result into breathing problems and this obstruction can result into buildup of secretions and can lead to pneumonia. Symptoms like fatigue, fever, and weight loss are not very specific symptoms. In fact, ten percent of patients do not show symptoms during diagnosis. At times, such cancers are detected during regular chest radiology.
Treatment of lung cancer depends on the cancer type, stage, health and age of the patient, and a few other factors. Usually, patients have to go through multiple therapies. The major treatment options for lung cancer include chemotherapy, surgery, radiation, and palliative care. In the recent years, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and gene therapy are also available as treatment options.
COLORECTAL CANCER TREATMENT
Uncontrolled growth of cells in rectum or colon (large intestine) is known as colorectal cancer. This is also called bowel cancer or colon cancer. It can also originate in the appendix. This kind of cancer usually initiates in the form of tiny polyps, which is also known as adenomatous polyps. Majority of the colon polyps remain benign in nature, but a few of them can turn cancerous. Polyps are so small that they generally do not show any symptom of being cancerous or rather show only a few symptoms. This is the reason why it is recommended to go for routine screening for early detection of colorectal cancer.
The major causes of colorectal cancer have been observed to be increasing age and lifestyle. Only a few of the colorectal cancer cases are related to primary genetic disorders. This type of cancer normally begins in the bowel’s lining and if such cancers do not get proper treatment in time, then it can extend to the muscle layer beneath and also stretches through bowel wall. Screening of colorectal cancer is recommended once someone attends the age of fifty and it should be done regularly until the age of 75.
Colorectal cancers, which remain restricted to the colon wall, can be cured with surgical procedures. In fact, colorectal cancer stands in the third place among commonly diagnosed cancers around the globe. From 75 percent to 95 percent of colorectal cancers happens to people who have no or very little genetic risk. Almost ten percent of colorectal cases are associated with reason of insufficient activity. People who suffers from inflammatory bowel disease are more like to develop colorectal cancer and if the longevity and severity of the inflammation is more, then the chances of developing colorectal cancer is also more.
Symptoms of colorectal cancer vary with the place from where the tumor originates in the bowel. Other factors, which affect the symptoms of colorectal cancer, include its spread to other areas of the body. In a number of cases of colorectal cancer, there are no symptoms in the initial stages. Symptoms also do not occur in treatable stages of colorectal cancer. Symptoms start to come up when the cancer begins to grow in size. Some of the common symptoms of colorectal cancer, which one should keep an eye on include:
For those who have attended the age of fifty, there are a number of tools or diagnostic tests for detecting colorectal cancer at an early stage. These tests can help in recognizing pre-cancerous conditions. These tests include:
Other tests done to diagnose and confirm the presence of colorectal cancer include:
Staging test is mainly done through CT scans.
Palliation or Curation can be two main aims of treatment for colorectal cancer. The choice of treatment depends on a number of factors. These include the preferences and health of the patient along with stage of the tumor. If colorectal cancer is detected at an early stage, then treatment can be curative. For cancers that have progressed beyond a level the main aim of treatment is palliation. The primary options for treatment include:
Close observation, proper medication, and better lifestyles are some of the ways that can help in preventing colorectal cancer. The main changes that can help in prevention of colorectal cancer include: